Green Lake Watershed

Publications

Sharing research that has been conducted in the Green Lake watershed is an essential component of lake management. This collection compiles articles that have been published in scientific journals. Each article has a brief summary, a link to the full document, and a citation for where it was published.

Aquatic Vegatation
Climate Change
Lake

hair algae

A Note on the Chemical Composition of Chara from Green Lake, Wisconsin (1929)
Henry A. Schuette and Hugo Alder
Based on Rickett's 1921 vegetative study, Schuette and Adler conducted a more detailed analysis of plants in the genus /Chara/ harvested at 38 collected stations on Green Lake. This study yielded estimates of the proximate composition of /Chara/, which allowed researchers to determine the plant's annual growth requirements. Read »

Changes in Submerged Macrophytes in Green Lake, Wisconsin, From 1921 to 1971 (1977)
Mary Jane Bumby
At 30 locations around Green Lake, Bumby compared macrophyte (aquatic plant) biomass between 1921 (Rickett) and 1971. Overall, the lake's littoral, or near shore, plant community was described as having "diminished" over those intermediate years. Macrophytes with the largest increases over this time period were Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), water celery (Vallisneria americana), and curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus). Muskgrasses (Chara spp.) had the largest decrease in biomass. Read »

Citation: Bumby, Mary J. Changes in Submerged Macrophytes in Green Lake, Wisconsin, From 1921 to 1971. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters: Volume LXV (1977): 120-151.

A Quantitative Study of the Larger Aquatic Plants of Green Lake, Wisconsin (1921)
H.W. Rickett, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
A macrophyte (large aquatic plant) survey was completed at 38 stations around Green Lake and at three locations in surrounding marshy bays. Rickett recorded species distributions and depth relations. About 9% of vegetation was in water less than 1 meter deep, roughly 40% between 1-3 m, and about 50% between 3-8 m. The dominant plant was Chara spp. (muskgrass), which comprised about half of the sampled weight. Potamogeton spp. (pondweed) comprised 20% of the flora. Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and Myriophyllum (milfoil) were each about 10% and were especially abundant in the deeper water. Low light and lower temperatures were likely factors in determining the depth extent of aquatic vegetation. Read »

Citation: Rickett, H.W. A Quantitative Study of the Larger Aquatic Plants of Green Lake, Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters: Volume XXI (1924): 381-414.

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draught

Patterns of Climate Change Across Wisconsin from 1950 to 2006 (2010)
Christopher Kucharik, et al., University of Wisconsin-Madison
This study of meteorological and ecological trends in Wisconsin quantifies the effect of climate change on the state's growing season. Since 1950, Wisconsin has seen a trend of increasing average daytime high and nighttime low temperatures. Average annual precipitation in central and southern Wisconsin has increased 10-15%, while precipitation in northern Wisconsin has declined since 1950, particularly in the summer. Across the state, the growing season has increased by between 5 and 20 days. Read »

Citation: Christopher J. Kucharik , Shawn P. Serbin , Steve Vavrus , Edward J. Hopkins & Melissa M. Motew (2010) Patterns of Climate Change Across Wisconsin From 1950 to 2006, Physical Geography, 31:1, 1-28.

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calm, reflective lake

Nutrient Internal Cycling and the Trophic Regulation of Green Lake, Wisconsin (1985)
Robert E. Stauffer, University of Wisconsin — Madison
In this publication, Stauffer examined how the shape of Green Lake influences internal nutrient cycling. Surveys were conducted in 1971-1972 and 1979-1980 to collect oxygen levels, nutrient samples (silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorus), and secchi depths. Between these collections, there had been a 35% reduction of total external phosphorus loading. Despite the reduction of external loading, total phosphorus content and seasonal partition among the layers was stable between the two sampling periods. Read »

Citation: Stauffer, Robert E. Nutrient Internal Cycling and the Trophic Regulation of Green Lake, Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography. Volume 30, Issue 2 (March 1985): 347-363.

Relationships between Phosphorus Loading and Trophic State in Calcareous Lakes of Southeast Wisconsin (1985)
Robert E. Stauffer, University of Wisconsin — Madison
Phosphorous ('P') concentrations and P loading were studied in Mendota, Delavan, Green, Fish and Devils Lakes. All of these, but Devils, are calcareous lakes meaning that they formed from sedimentary rocks high in calcium carbonate. Equations from various regional models did not provide useful predictions for P concentrations in the Wisconsin lakes because these calcareous lakes had relatively low P retention coefficients. In general, the calcareous lakes had anomalously high over-winter P concentrations and were comparatively eutrophic for their external loads. Read »

Citation: Stauffer, Robert E. Relationships between Phosphorus Loading and Trophic State in Calcareous Lakes of Southeast Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography. Volume 30, Issue 1 (January 1985):123-145.

A Treatise on Limnology, Vol I. Part 1: Geography and Physics of Lakes, Part 2: Chemistry of Lakes (1975)
G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Yale University
In Volume 1 of Hutchinson's seminal book, originally published in 1957, he details the geography, physics and chemistry of lakes around the world. For Green Lake, he includes a discussion of drainage, rate of heating, and the vertical distribution of oxygen. Hutchinson draws upon the work of Birge and Juday from the early 1900's.

Citation: Hutchinson, G. Evelyn. A Treatise on Limnology, Vol. I, Part 1: Geography and Physics of Lakes. Part 2: Chemistry of Lakes. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975.

The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin: The Dissolved Gases of the Water and Their Biological Significance (1911)
Edward A. Birge and Chancey Juday, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
This book discusses dissolved gases of inland lakes around Wisconsin, including Green Lake. They document Green Lake as thermally stratified for about five months each year and report a summer abundance of oxygen below the thermocline (the depth at which the water temperature declines rapidly). Diagrams show a decrease in oxygen at the thermocline (about 13 m depth) and at the greatest measured depth (65 m) in October 1906. Figures also show the vertical distribution of plankton organisms (crustacea, nauplii, rotifers, algae, and diatoms) from summer 1906 samples. The region above the thermocline was much more densely populated than the region below. Read »

Citation: Birge, E.A and Juday C. The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin: The Dissolved Gases of the Water and Their Biological Significance. Bulletin Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, No. 22: Series 7.

The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin: The Hydrography and Morphometry of the Lakes (1914)
Edward A. Birge and Chancey Juday, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
This book reports the physiography, hydrography, and morphometry of inland lakes of Wisconsin. Chapter VIII centers on Green Lake in which Birge and Juday describe the glacial origins of the lake and the easily eroded bedrock of Potsdam sandstone that composes the majority of the lake basin. They also describe an artificial dam at the outlet which maintains the water level about 5 feet above its natural level. A maximum depth of 237 feet and an area of 11.47 square miles are cited. Read »

Citation: Birge, E.A. and Juday C. The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin: The Hydrography and Morphometry of the Lakes. Bulletin Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. No. 27: Series 9.

On the Limnetic Crustacea of Green Lake (1897)
C. Dwight Marsh, Ripon College
This work investigated diurnal (daily) migrations of limnetic (lake) crustacea. Collections were taken at 5 meter depth intervals from September 1894 to December 1896. The fauna of Green Lake resembled that of the Great Lakes. It had been speculated that vertical migrations of crustacea existed with predictable seasonal and diurnal patterns, but different species showed varying degrees of migration due to light and/or temperature. Marsh also concluded that horizontal distribution of crustacea was far from uniform and encouraged continued observations. Read »

Citation: Marsh, C. Dwight. On the Limnetic Crustacea of Green Lake. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. Volume XI (1896-1897): 179-224.

On the Vertical Distribution of Pelagic Crustacea in Green Lake, Wisconsin (1894)
C. Dwight Marsh, Ripon College
Crustacean fauna of Green Lake are almost identical with that of the Great Lakes. Fifteen species of crustacea were found in the deeper waters of Green Lake. Some species existed throughout the water column, from the surface to the bottom. There was no barren intermediate zone, though the numbers were lower. Diaptomus minutus was the most prevalent species, and almost 60% were within the top 10 meters. It was concluded that that the crustaceans were probably present in swarms and that those positions were constantly changing. It was difficult to specify exact patterns of diurnal migrations of pelagic species. Read »

Citation: Marsh, C. Dwight. On the Vertical Distribution of Pelagic Crustacea in Green Lake, Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. Volume XI (1896-1897): 179-224.

On the Deep Water Crustacea of Green Lake (1891)
C. Dwight Marsh, Ripon College
Collections from Green Lake showed fauna resembling diversity from larger water bodies such as Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. There was an abundant amount of fauna, but the number of species was small. Common crustaceans were from the genus Diaptomus, and the most abundant species was Diaptomus minutus. Read »

Citation: Marsh, C. Dwight. On the Deep Water Crustacea of Green Lake. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. Volume VII (1888-1891): 211-213.

Notes on Depth and Temperature of Green Lake (1891)
C. Dwight Marsh, Ripon College
This paper details systematic soundings conducted on the lake to produce depth profiles. The greatest documented depth was 195 feet and was located between Sandstone Bluff and Sugar Loaf. Marsh, also recorded surface and bottom temperatures at different depths in the summers of 1890 and 1891, inferring that the maximum bottom temperature was reached in August. In August of 1890, bottom temperatures were approximately 6.6 degrees Celsius and surface temperatures were about 24 degrees Celsius. Read »

Citation: Marsh, C. Dwight. Notes on Depth and Temperature of Green Lake. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. Volume VIII (1888-1891): 214- Plate VI.

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